Ancient History – Athens


Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).


What Advertising Techniques Could Do For Companies

Ahead of your organization starts marketing and advertising a merchandise, it aids to produce an best customer who else you would like to attain with your own promotional supplies. Once anyone have your current ideal buyer, you get a host of methods to choose from. Many of these types of are very low cost/no expense methods along with an individual might use diverse ones in different levels of your own business routine, or even an individual may make the most of them most at when from your current business’ creation. We’ll appear at more effective of all these techniques throughout more aspect. (Do anyone have precisely what it requires to perform in this kind of fast-paced industry? This write-up will assist you identify if advertising is regarding you. Continue reading this awesome blog post to find out more.

Any time you create a company, the very first thing an individual want to be able to secure is usually a client base. Using a quality printer, a good answering equipment and a average personal computer, you may put collectively a pretty extensive advertising and marketing campaign without having having for you to pay regarding space. This kind of is the particular carpet-bombing technique of low-cost advertising. A person find a area which you would likely like to be able to do enterprise in, as well as you disperse flyers to be able to all the particular mailboxes in reach. Your own personal flyer need to be simple and to be able to the place, highlighting typically the services an individual offer as well as providing make contact with information. Giving totally free Identification solutions, discount or lower price never wounds.

Most food markets, public spots and department stores offer cost-free bulletin table space with regard to Printed items as well as advertisements. This kind of is some sort of hit or perhaps miss approach, but an individual should consider to help to make your cacher reasonably apparent and have got removable navigation bars that the particular customers could present intended for a lower price. Make every single location the different shade so which you may get a great idea via the dividers where typically the most qualified prospects are becoming generated. When there is usually one spot that is usually producing the particular majority associated with your prospects, you could better focus on your strategy (flyers, advertising in documents catering to be able to those locations, cold dialing, etc.). To find out more, Visit this guide.

In the area, value enhancements are quite similar for you to coupons and also free value determinations, but they will are focused at growing customer fulfillment and increasing the space between an individual and competitors. Frequent benefit additions incorporate guarantees, special discounts for returning clients, level cards along with referrals benefits.

Find The Residence You Desire At A Lower Price

When you are trying to find new apartments for sale, there is a couple of ways you can locate the best discounts. Whenever you utilize a nearby real estate broker, they’ll assist you in finding property for sale by auction or maybe by means of short sales to save you the maximum amount of funds as is possible.

A property that is for sale in an auction is generally for sale through the bank that is the owner of it. These are generally houses which were foreclosed on, and the loan company is trying to sell them all for the amount required to deal with the borrowed funds. What this means is they will be reselling the home for a more affordable selling price than what it is truly worth. Some of these homes may have to be restored, however you are likely going to find that you are still most likely going to save anyhow. An alternate way to obtain a wonderful deal for a house is to find properties offered by means of short sales. This is often a residence offered through the owner to avoid a foreclosure. Normally, they’ll sell the house for just what is left in their home loan, thus you’re likely not going to pay what the home is truly worth.

If you’re searching for a great deal on a new house, speak to your real estate professional concerning taking a look at auctions or short sale houses today. The chances are, you’ll certainly be able to find a house you adore for a excellent cost.

Get The Aid Of A Advertising And Marketing Company

When you have 3 bedroom apartments for sale, you might want to start using a property marketing company to ensure that your residences are going to be sold speedily. These companies possess all the resources required to advertise your residences and ensure you dig up the appropriate buyers.

Nowadays, it can be challenging for any buyer to locate the correct house and then for the seller to obtain the suitable buyer. Presently there are so many different houses sold at any time, therefore it may be nearly impossible for someone to locate the ideal place. As opposed to basically placing an advertisement for the condominiums on the internet and waiting for anyone to notice it, if you use a marketing company you can find they’ll guide you in finding buyers for every single one of your apartments quickly. They’ll be ready to sift through the potential buyers to make sure they’ll have the ability to pay for the residence and that they’re going to end up being the people you desire moving into your own residences. For instance, in case you own a significant, set of condominiums, you’re most likely going to prefer customers that do not have any kind of a criminal history. A marketing business will help you on this.

In case you are selling your own residences, never strive to complete it on your own. Let a marketing business aid you so that you can choose the best purchasers swiftly.

The Lure Of Your Payday Loan – Ideas To Help You Assess Their Worthy of

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It’s popular for emergency situations to develop all the time of the season. Stuff like broken down autos and freezers can easily provide you with struggling for cash. A payday loan may help in this case. Browse the pursuing information and facts for additional details on payday cash loans.

Individuals who are going through an economic unexpected emergency can turn to payday cash loans to have brief-term money. Attempt your very best to comprehend each of the terms of the loan before signing anything at all. Interest rates are astronomical along with the charges it can be difficult to pay for the payments.

Shop around just before selecting a payday loan company. Some may possibly offer you reduced interest rates as opposed to others, while some may well waive charges for taking the borrowed funds out from the beginning. In addition, you will find those that will give you the funds immediately, while others have you wait around somewhat. Seek out the very best payday advance company that gives the most advantages to both you and your scenarios.

If you realise oneself bound to a payday loan which you could not pay back, call the borrowed funds company, and lodge a complaint. Almost everyone has legitimate complaints, in regards to the higher fees incurred to increase payday loans for the next spend period of time. Most financial institutions gives you a deduction in your loan costs or fascination, but you don’t get in the event you don’t question — so make sure to request!

Should you don’t possess the money on palm when your payday advance arrives due, you could possibly work out repayments. Some firms can extend your expected time by a day or two. Much like other things within this organization, you may well be charged a fee if you require an extension, but it will be less expensive than later service fees.

Every payday advance organizations will give you an alternative add up to use. This is dependent upon the amount of money you are making. Your loan company is going to do the math concepts and allow you to understand what your highest possible amount borrowed is. This can be valuable when it comes to a payday loan.

Avoid bank loan agents and deal specifically with the payday advance organization. There are tons of companies that will match you on top of someone tend not to use them.

Phone the cash advance organization if, you will have a trouble with the repayment schedule. Anything you do, don’t disappear altogether. These firms have reasonably competitive choices divisions, and can often be difficult to handle. Prior to they look at you delinquent in repayment, just contact them, and tell them what is going on.

Ensure that you learn how, and whenever you may pay back the loan even before you get it. Have the personal loan payment proved helpful into your spending budget for your upcoming pay time periods. Then you can ensure you pay the funds again. If you cannot pay off it, you will definitely get caught up paying out financing extension charge, along with additional fascination.

Prior to getting a cash advance, it is crucial that you learn of the various kinds of available so you know, what are the most effective for you. Specific payday loans have diverse policies or specifications than the others, so seem on the Internet to understand what one meets your needs.

Be sure you comprehend the charges and costs linked to taking out a cash advance. The rates on payday loans is exorbitantly great. As soon as the personal loan is not really paid entirely through the date due, your fees to the bank loan generally boost.

Anytime applying for a payday loan, ensure that all the details you provide is exact. Sometimes, stuff like your employment history, and home may be verified. Ensure that your details are appropriate. You may stay away from obtaining declined for your pay day loan, allowing you helpless.

Whenever you are obtaining a cash advance, you need to never think twice to ask queries. When you are unclear about something, in particular, it is actually your obligation to request for clarification. This can help you know the conditions and terms of your personal loans so you won’t get any undesired excitement.

Getting the correct information and facts before applying to get a payday loan is critical. You have to get into it calmly. With a little luck, the information in the following paragraphs have well prepared you to have a payday loan which can help you, but additionally one that you could repay easily. Take some time and choose the best firm so you do have a great knowledge about online payday loans.

Why Many Prefer 357 SIG Ammunition

Numerous, whenever they head off to buy ammo, opt to purchase bulk 357 sig ammo. The ammo was first produced back in 1994 to deliver the performance observed with 125-grain .357 Magnum ammo in a semi-automatic handgun cartridge form. The main reason this .357 SIG is extremely sought after is this has a high velocity along with a level trajectory, peculiar for ammo of this type. In reality, the ammo has got so very much to deliver that numerous law enforcement services choose to make use of it, such as the USA Marshals Service and the United States Secret Service. Exactly what positive aspects should you take into account if preparing to buy 357 sig ammunition?

A 357 sig rounds cartridge provides recoil comparable to that observed using a 9mm Luger, greater reliability than seen using a 40 S&W, and also the general performance of any 357 Magnum. One can choose from a range of high-performance loads now, and this particular ammunition in any form is extremely affordable, of importance for numerous shoppers. If you prefer a round which can penetrate window glass or perhaps a vehicle body, this is the type to choose. Thanks to low prices on mass ammunition, you can fully analyze 357 sig rounds and ensure it is good for you.

Be Ready to Defend Yourself While in the Wild

With the creation of digital camera models, a lot more people already have selected pictures as their major leisure activity. Some individuals choose to shoot portraits, other folks panoramas and still others, wildlife outside in the wilderness and lesser traveled areas around the globe. It’s rather a fantastic thing to actually end up on your own within the back region, exactly where all you can view is actually the flora and fauna plus the exclusive sounds you truly notice are the types from the breezes throwing out, insects and also birds plus your unique breathing as well as footsteps. A small number of circumstances on the planet will be as still and quiet as really being alone along with mother nature herself and also animals. This truly is a superb portion of your appeal associated with animals digital photography!

Unfortunately, that wildlife can certainly be a little bit wild, and quite often not safe. It’s a good idea if an individual enter in the back country protected by a good gun or even pistol in order to be in a position to safeguard her or himself should the need ought to arise. You’ll want to buy ammo for your firearm, and should realize that the top charges are along with bulk ammunition. Be sure you have loads to match your firearm and try to stay in close by in case there is demand. When you’re 100 miles from the local town, you can not phone 911!

Athens – The Destination


Athens was named after Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom, which is certainly fitting for the birthplace itself. Evidence of its ancient heyday is everywhere, in the remnants of monuments, statuary and sacred sites that are still revered as survivors of one of history’s most important eras.

A Poseidon adventure in art

In Greek mythology, Poseidon is the god of sea, so it is only fitting that the astoundingly wrought bronze statue of him was raised from the bottom of the Aegean Sea, where it lay for centuries after a shipwreck off the Cape of Artemision. The two-meter tall figure stands with arms extended and leaning forward on its left leg. The right hand once held a trident, and the unknown sculptor clearly was a master in accurately duplicating the complicated balancing act that goes into the seemingly simple motion of throwing a spear.

This work of art is one of the many stunning bronzes at the National Archeological Museum in Athens. The museum’s collection – which includes pieces that date all the way back to the prehistoric period – offers the best collection of Greek art in the world. Renovations closed the museum for a year and half, but it was reopened just in time for the 2004 Olympic Games.

At 260 feet above the city, the Acropolis (“high city”) is not only the highest point in Athens, but for many people it is the high point of any visit to Greece. It is the oldest known settlement in Greece and was a sacred site for ancient Athenians.

During the period of 448 to 420 B.C., the distinguished Athenian statesman Pericles commissioned the construction of four new monuments on the Acropolis at the site of former ruins. The Athenian sculptor Phidias presided over the construction and interior design. The Ionic Erechtheum includes the Porch of Caryatids, with its column in the shape of monumental female figures that identify remains a mystery. The Ionic Temples of Athena Nike, dedicated to the cult of Athena as the goddess of victory, was built during the Peloponnesian War, its frieze depicts the Greek victory over the Persians in the battle of Plataea. The Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis with rows of both Doric and Ionic columns, replaced an earlier version destroyed by the Persians. And of course, the Acropolis remains home to what’s left of the Parthenon.

The Parthenon, designed by architects Iktinos and Kallikrates, took 15 years to complete. It was the closest to Pericles’ heart: Among various friezes depicting life among gods, the large statue of Athena represented his homage to the goddess and to the greatness of Athens.

Even in A.D. 131, savvy developers like the Roman Emperor Hadrian recognized the importance of signage. “This is the city of Hadrian and not of Theseus,” reads the inscription on Hadrian’s arch, situated at the foot of the Acropolis and once the marker between Hadrianopolis and the Athens city limits. The side facing the Acropolis and ancient Athens reads, ” This is Athens, the city of Theseus.”

Like all the surrounding monuments and the Athens infrastructure itself, Hadrian’s Arch has undergone a major facelift. The 60-foot high archway, constructed of Pentelic marble, upheld by columns with Corthinian capitals and topped by a series of Corinthians columns, lost a bit of structural stability in the mid-18th century, when 8 of its columns were removed.

Restorers shored up the arch, cleaned away centuries of pollution and repaired its cracks, just in time for the 2004 Olympic Games.

The Evzones

The Evzones were once the elite soldiers of the Greek army. Today they are the presidential guards, a ceremonial unit that maintains watch over The Parliament, The Presidential Mansion and The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The soldiers wear a traditional and highly photogenic uniform comprising a scarlet cap with a long black tassel, a cotton tunic, black knee tassels above white stockings, red clogs with black pompons and a woolen kilt called a fustanella. The fustanella has 400 pleats, one for each year that the Greeks were on the occupation of the Ottoman Empire. Bearing leather cartridge belts and rifles with a bayonet, the soldiers maintain strict physical discipline as they stand at attention and resist tourists’ attempts to distract them.

A changing of guard is performed daily before the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, but on Sundays, the complete ceremony – involving an army band and dozens of soldiers – is conducted.

Alice in Wonderland

Imagine Alice in Wonderland’s tumble into a magical world, and you will have an idea what this-off-beaten-path attraction in the Village of Paiania is like. Far larger than a rabbit hole, Koutouki Cave is a natural wonder that will awe you with its colors and formations. In 1926, a goat disappeared from its herd where it was grazing on the slope of Mount Ymittos. A search turned up a small crevice, and a brave soul descended by rope into the abyss below. The goat had not survived the fall, but its intended rescuer returned with a story of a beautiful underground chamber.

The vertical cave consists of a 38.5 meter shaft that opens onto a large cavern with a diameter of about 60 meters. Guided tours take visitors in through a man-made entrance and lead them on a path through stalactites and stalagmites formed by mineral deposits from water seeping through the limestone of the mountain. The tour ends with a light show accompanied by classical music. It’s just a short taxi ride from Athens to nearby Paiania.


The Straightforward Actions To Nurture Large And Productive Businesses

In this day and age, it appears like a growing number of folks happen to be trying to develop into sellers. Being employed by an organization and being an excellent worker is a good idea, however setting up and expanding your very own company is a totally different story. Even so, establishing a profitable business all on your own can certainly be a lot of work and can certainly be very hard.

If a person is intending to start a company, it truly is important for them to realize that they simply cannot constantly complete the task on their own. It will be recommended that you work with a trusted companion that can take care of a handful of tasks also. In fact, quite a few large and profitable companies started out with only a small amount of people. Read the WCNR Blog so that you can discover more with regards to the significance of companions in running a business.

It is also imperative that you own a wonderful product for the precise market in which you are focusing on. A small business is absolutely nothing without a stable item which people will need and savor. Lanyards might seem like pretty modest objects, nevertheless huge numbers of people find these types of little objects to be incredibly worthwhile. Entrepreneurs really should avoid making the big mistake of underestimating precisely how well their own useful items may be received.

Determining the Want for Amazing Employers

Much better bosses have got the self-assurance of their particular teammates, as well as don’t get scared when there are sticky office issues like overwork and also frustration using red tape. These people are in-touch along with their staff members’ pressure levels as well as workloads. Have you considered you? Due to this, numerous administrators consider training programs by Executive Coach International to help these groups succeed.

You’ll turn out to be a far better boss each time anyone name a awkward or perhaps politically-sensitive concern that frantically needs to be able to be mentioned. It may be your own personal team’s disappointment with the actual new reward plan, or even their worries that the co-worker is not pulling their particular weight. Anyone might get your tone of voice as well as notify your supervisor that your current production plan is unlikely. Whenever anyone tell the particular truth with regards to a little something in which other folks are trying to keep quiet regarding and wanting to disregard, your authority muscles expands.

The actual best manager a individual may actually have need to be in comparison to air: an faultlessly helpful, completely non-toxic existence. They ought to be all-pervasive yet never ever invasive, wise but not really flashy, along with with typically the ability to be able to fuel a few amazing perform. Their endeavors should maintain the enterprise running effortlessly simply because some sort of great innovator makes positive to receive the career done whilst keeping their workers pleased. See how coach training by ECI can help an individual.